Basic Industries – Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Business services – Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Central Business District – The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central Place – A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place theory – A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
City-State – A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland..
Clustered rural settlement – A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Consumer Services – Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Dispersed rural settlement – A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Economic base – A community’s collection of basic industries.
Enclosure movement – The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Gravity model – A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Market area – The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
Nonbasic Industries – Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Personal Services – Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers
Primate City – The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate city rule – A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Producer services – Services that primarily help people conduct business.
Range – The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Rank-size rule – A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Retail Services – Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Service – An activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Settlement – A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
Threshold – The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Transportation and information services – Services that diffuse and distribute services.
Public Services – Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses