Agribusiness – Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agriculture – The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Cereal grain – A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaffs – Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Combine – A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans gram while moving over a field.
Commercial agriculture – Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Crop – Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Crop rotation – The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Desertification – Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Double cropping – Harvesting twice a year on the same field
Grain – Seed of a cereal grass
Green Revolution – Rapid diffusion of agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Horticulture – The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hull – The outer covering of a seed.
Intensive Subsistence agriculture – A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Milkshed – The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Paddy – wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
Pastoral Nomadism – A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture – Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
Plantation – A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Prime agricultural land – The most productive farmland. Prime meridian The meridian, designated as 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Ranching – A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Reaper – A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.
Ridge tillage – System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Sawah – A flooded field for growing rice
Seed agriculture – Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds,
Slash and burn agriculture – Another name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Spring wheat – Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Subsistence Agriculture – Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family
Sustainable agriculture – Farming methods that preselTe longterm productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
Swidden – A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Thresh – To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Transhumance – The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming – Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
Vegetation planting – Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
Wet rice – Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Winnow – To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Winter Wheat – Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the summer.