1. What is migration and why do people migrate?
- Migration is a permanent move from one place to another.
- There are also two different types of migration. (pg. 86 “Distance of Migration”)
- Internal Migration is is a permanent move to a different location of the country that you live in.
* i.e. California to Maryland, Shanghai to Beijing, etc.
- International Migration is a permanent move from one country to another.
* i.e. America to England, Bangladesh to India
- Migration is influenced by push and pull factors.
- A push factor is something that encourages movement out of a current location.
- A pull factor is something that encourages movement into a new location.
- There are three different types of push and pull factors:
- Economic Factors: these are generally things like few job opportunities. (see pg. 82 “Migrating from Italy to Ukraine” article)
- Cultural Factors: slavery and political instability are to major cultural reasons for migration. (pg. 83 “Cultural Push and Pull Factors”)
- Environmental Factors: health hazardous regions push people out; people generally like to live in “physically attractive regions.” (pg. 4 “Environmental Push and Pull Factors”)
- Migrating is obviously not the easiest task to accomplish.
- Intervening obstacles are features that hinder migration.
* Mountains and deserts made migration difficult before the invention of railroads, cars and planes. (pg. 86 “Intervening Obstacles” 2nd paragraph)
2. Who is Ravenstein and why do we still use his work?
- Ernst Georg Ravenstein was a German-English cartographer and geographer.
- Read more about him here.
- He was a professor of geography at Bedford College in 1882–83.
- According to Wikipedia,
“His Systematic Atlas (1884) puts in practice many of the author’s helpful ideas as to methods of teaching cartography. His Map of Equatorial Africa(1884) was the most notable map of a large part of the continent on a large scale that had been made up to that time.”
This is Ravenstein’s Ethnographical Map of Turkey in Europe.