The Demographic Transition
The demographic transition model is a model that represents the transformation of a
country’s economy and also demonstrates the high crude birth rate, and crude death
rate to the low CBR and CDR
The four stages of the demographic
Stage 1- This stage is the stage in which birth and death rates were high. Because death rates at this time were so high, families would have multiple children because
they needed more people to work ( farming, hunting etc.) The natural increase rate was 0 because the crude birth rate and crude death rate balanced one another.
Example: Before the Industrial Revolution, Western Europe was in stage 1 because they
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, countries in Western Europe had a high CBR and CDR. Births were high because more children meant more workers on the farm and with the high death rate, families needed more children to ensure survival of the family. Death rates were high due to disease and a lack of hygiene. The high CBR and CDR were somewhat stable and meant slow growth of a population. Occasional epidemics would dramatically increase the CDR for a few years
Stage 2- Birth rates increased and death rates decrease due to improvements in sanitation, medicine, and a increased food supply, and the population begins to rise steadily.
Example: Most LDC’s in today are in stage 2. Ethiopia is an LDC who is in stage 2, and is the second most populous nation in Africa.
Stage 3- Both the birth and death rates level off, and population continues to grow.
Stage 4- Both the birth and death rate are low, and population is steady.