what is the demographic transition?
the demographic transition model is a model that represent the transformation of countries economics from high death rate and crude birth rate to low high death and birth rate.
the world population increase at differnt rate in different countries because the countries are in different stage of the demographic transition. many countries still have high crude birth rate but the death rate decrease which create overpopulation.
the stages of the demographic transition model are:
stage1 low growth
the stage 1 of the demographic transition was when many counrties crude birth rate and death rate was about the same. the natural increase rate was zero. At that time it was a not a lot of family planning because people depended on huntingand gathering food. at that time also people lack of hygiene and health care which made the death rate high. when people had gathered a lot of food the family had time to make more children which increase the birth rate which would help them later to work.
examples: britain in the 18th century and the least developped countries today waas or stillare in stage one.
stage2 high growth
in stage 2 the population grew ten times faster than it did before. the death rate decrease because the medical revolution create new vaccine to protect the people, the hygiene also improved with clean water.The food was well care anstorage which gave more time to the people. the birth rate increase as in stage 1. the decrease in infant mortality also help the population increase.
most o the countries in stage 2 are Britain in the 19th century Bangladesh, Nigeria.
stage 3 moderate growth
this stage is when the birth rate decrease. the population still increasing because the crude birth rate is still higher than the death rate and the natural birth rate is modest in this stage. the birth rate decrease because of change in socials custom.people are deciding to have less babies. peoples change their habbit; they don” t work in the farms but in urban area with shops, offices, factories.
example: many women in the USA are equal to the men and goes to work outside of their home which do not give them time to take care of a big family.
stage 4 low growth
in stage 4, the birth rate and the death rate dicrease but they are at the same level which give the natural increase rate approach zero. Most contries in this stage are economically in good position. Also in this stage the women has entered the labor force. people are not having a lot of kids because it takes time and it is too much money because preschooled kids have to get babysited by someone else.
example: today many people don’t want to have a lot of children because they will spend most of their money on the children than on themselves.
there is also a 5th stage that siad the death rate will be higher than the birth rate.