1. What is urban renewal? Why do cities undergo urban renewal, and what are the results?
1. Definition of urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhood, acquire the properties from private owners, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers
2. Why do cities undergo urban renewal?
cities constantly face fiscal shortcomings, so they want to bring in richer residents into the city
to repair deteriorating neighborhoods that are either unsafe or under-utilized
Zoning – prevents certain services/types of residents from certain parts of the cities – keep people in certain neighborhoods
Urban renewal can generate increased revenues for cities
Changes the demographics of the city – gentrification
Historical mis-use of urban renewal as “negro removal”
Example: Chicago – mostly whites live in the inner city
Example: Baltimore harborplace
city put money into harborplace, it was a relative success
it also attracted businesses from Sandtown, helping to contribute to the decline of that neighborhood
2. How are urban areas different in the US and in other countries?
North American Cities
- wealthier live in the suburbs
- CBD is focal point of city
- extensive public transportation – suburban based on commuting and suburbs
- public transportation is more expensive (why?)
- CBD is less dmoniated by
- low-rise structures and
- churches and
- wealthy live in inner-city
- poor people live clustered in the suburbs
- 50% more americans live in 30% of central cities.
Latin American Cities
- they were colonized, used as administrative centers
- some were torn down and rebuilt as colonial cities
- how do the urban structures differ
- the lower income live clustered in the inner cities
- the us offers public houses for low-income households
- sprawl wastes land, prime agricultural land may be lost from these developments
- do not recognize the impact of transportation (what is this?)
- In Europe, poor live in the suburbs, the wealthy live near the center of cities
- LDC’s are unable to house the growing number of people causing the poor to live in squatter settlements
- countries like Europe and Japan subsidize public transportation
- European cities, London, and other British cities are restricted on land use for sprawl; they have mandatory open space
- new developments are built in older suburbs or in planned extensions to small towns
What do they share – sprawl – public transportation
similar components but different locations
inner cities – compare/contrast these areas
suburbs/sprawl – how do these compare
lower class where do they live?
3. Discuss the possible reasons for the origin of settlements.
- Human Enironmental Interactions
- job opportunity
- public services
- educational opportunities
- health care
If you had to move, what types of features would you look for to decide where to move to?
location to services
Settlements – A permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services
Services – Any activity that
Relationship between the two – settlements were built for the needs for services
Early Consumer Services
Burial of the deceased
Home and hearth – production of pots, beds, clothing, etc
Early Business Services
transportation and warehousing – food was a must, but hunting and gathering got you what you needed
not everyone had access to the same services
varied distribution of vegetation
Early Public Services
residents were vulnerable to attacks from other groups
this inspired the public security
Conclusion – settlements were related to help “organize” living situations. services such as burials, security, and warehousing were necessary for early settlements
4. What are the urban structures models that geographers use to understand how cities are organized? How well do they apply to cities?
On this question, you should understand each layer of the models, and what types of activities go on in these layers, and whether or not these types of layers still exist in today’s urban renewal cities.
What are the models?
conceptual outlines of how cities are organized – all developed to explain Chicago
where are different people and activities are organized and arranged
how cities develop – to better explain how cities work
Concentric Zone Model – rings outward from the CBD
Sector Model – sectors not rings
Multiple Nuclei Model – there are more than 1 center of activity
How well do these models apply to cities?
General conclusions on the urban structure models
limited in their ability to explain cities
they do not cross the boundaries - well
challenges – generalizations but you can’t really
5. How do MDCs and LDCs differ in the types of services that make up their economies? Why?
What are services?
services generate more than 2/3 GDP in MDC, yet only 1/2 in LDC
MDCs where they are
LDCs Latin America India
offshore financial services
low wage rates b/c of english
they have poor economies because of lack of money
6. What is urban planning and design? How can urban planning impact peoples perceptions and behavior?
Urban Planning – how the land is used in cities
the spatial distribution of features
Urban design the art of place-making
Whether people find a place attractive and enjoyable
the placement of business determines the amount of customers and foot traffic
Suburban planning and design
less dense housing
7. What are some of the problems associated with increasing urbanization in LDCs?
LDC – what are the characteristics examples
2/5 live in cities
3/5 live in rural
urbanization has grown in ldcs because people can’t support themselves in rural lifestyles
Define LDC – examples
Urbanization – growth of population – two dimensions
Which one of these applies to LDCs- what does this mean?
Migration into cities from rural areas
Rapid growth of cities in LDCs is not a measure of improved development
large % of people living in urban areas is a measure of a countries level of development
8. According to the text, gentrification is defined as “a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area”. This definition by itself does not express the controversy surrounding this form of urban residential change. To some, gentrification displaces low-income people who find it increasingly difficult to find affordable housing. To others, it is a welcome renovation of often run-down urban real estate. Your essay should explain the controversy and you may want to choose one side to argue.
Gentrification – define
arguments for gentrification – to decrease the amount of run down neighborhoods
these run down neighborhoods decrease property values
by building new and more attractive buildings, the prices increase, thus forcing the lower class to leave and move out
arguments against gentrification –
against gentrification – low income families are forced to move out
Urban Renewal – what is it? why do cities use it?
Gentrification is one of the results of urban renewal.
Effects of gentrification (negative)
property values increase rent goes up
lower income people are suddenly unable to pay rent
people are forced to move out changing the area into a middle class income area
Effects of Gentrification (positive)
more tax revenue for the city
could force low income centers into housing
more diversity of income within the city
Position: Gentrification is negative
does not solve poverty issue
more positive for the city than the citizens
animosity between the classes
could create homeless and poor conditions
9. Describe how the central place theory describes why consumer services are distributed in regular patterns. Be sure to address the concept of market area, range, and threshold.
Central Place Theory
settlement provides one or more services for the population living around it.
example – Central Place – city surrounded by schools, businesses, restaurants, grocery etc
1933 Christaller – people come together in cities to share services
Simple basic services are low order
Specialized goods are high order
Market Area – range and threshold
Threshold – minimum number of customers
Range – furthest distance most customers will drive
10. What are squatter settlements? Why do they develop and what are the living conditions in them?
large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDC’s
in search of jobs – poor immigrants migrate to cities
relate services – why do ldcs have such struggling economies
the economy of the LDC is unable to support services for th epoor
they live illegally
structures are unable to handle severe weather
no medical care
percentage of people in squatter settlements
urbanizations of LDCs breeds squatter settlements
The increase of density in cities with no services and little available housing inevitibally create slums